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42908 Engineering Project Preparation

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42908 Engineering Project Preparation

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Course Code: 42908
University: University Of Technology Sydney

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Country: Australia

What are the basic differences in between Urban and Rural Solid Waste Management systems?

This project plan aims at establishing a waste management plan that is able to meet the current needs and future demand when it comes to solid waste management in rural areas. The plan will use the state adopted hierarchy strategies of managing solid waste. The project is motivated by the need to reduce solid waste which has become an issue in rural areas. Previously, the biggest concern for environmentalists and the government alike was management of solid waste materials in urban areas. The urban areas have high population density and there is a lot of use of manufactured goods which explains why there is a lot of solid waste in urban areas. However, management of solid waste in rural areas is becoming an issue of concern for the government and other stakeholders concerned with environmental sustainability. The government has not been able to formulate policies and finance solid waste management in rural areas. There is lack of sanitation facilities in most rural areas and hence causing uncontrolled disposal sites which are located close to households and water bodies (Zarate, Slotnick and Ramos, 2008). Municipal, agricultural, construction and demolition waste is common in rural areas. This project aims at developing a waste management plan that has the support of the public and that which involves the public in minimization of solid waste. Recycling will also be used to minimize solid waste. Storage for solid waste will be provided using existing mechanisms such as dust bins.
Aims and objectives of the study
The aim of this study is to establish a solid waste management plan that is able to meet current and future needs pertaining solid waste management using the states` adopted hierarchy of waste management strategies.
To secure maximum support from the public by carrying out educational programs and by encouraging public participation.
To provide a solid waste collection and storage throughout Altona District by adopting existing mechanisms that have been found to work in other areas
Research Questions
What are the differences between urban and rural solid waste management systems?
Can urban solid waste management plan be used to manage solid waste in the rural areas?
What main improvements and changes can be made to the urban solid waste management to be used in rural solid waste management?
How do activities such as educational campaigns, use of good quality bins with covers and collection of waste on a daily basis contribute to positive change in environment and health?
H1.Improper disposal and littering of waste can be reduced through education campaigns and use of volunteers
H2the use of proper covered bins can cause the least damage in terms of adverse ecosystem and habitat changes, and negative impacts on natural resources.
Literature review
Solid waste management in rural areas is a subject that has been researched highly by researchers and academicians in different fields. Interest in research in solid waste management in rural areas began in the 1990s. Countries were becoming more industrialized and the environmental effects of industrialization had spread wings to the rural areas (Wu et al., 2014). Before then, solid waste management was not a concern in rural areas since the waste from the rural areas mainly composed of agricultural refuse. With increasing industrialization and use of processed goods, solid waste especially polythene has become an issue in rural areas and it needs to be addressed urgently. Most rural household have been found to dump their solid waste in open dumping sites. This is because, the local governments have abandoned these areas since they believe that the solid waste management in rural areas is not their responsibility and that every household should take responsibility. The situation is the same globally with only 30% of the global rural population getting access to solid waste management services (Makarenko and Budak, 2017).
In Australia, the composition of solid waste in rural areas is mainly agricultural and kitchen waste which can be used as manure. This is due to the consumption patterns of people in rural areas where the consumption of fresh vegetables, fruits, roots and other food items is very high. However, there is an increase in consumption of processed food which is packaged and hence resulting to solid waste that is inorganic. One of the techniques used to manage solid waste in rural areas is encouraging people to acquire bins that are divided into two sections. This bins are to be situated inside or near the house to enable the family members to dispose off their waste before its dumped at the main facility (Khatib and Al-Khateeb, 2009). The bin should be divided to enable separation of solid waste. Organic solid waste is disposed in one section while inorganic waste is disposed in the other section. By doing this it makes it easier for the authorities collecting the waste to separate the waste by either using different tracks or by having garbage trucks that are subdivided into sections.
Means of solid waste collection in large scale is another critical issue in management of solid waste in rural areas. Effective means of collecting solid waste in Australia depends on type of vehicle and staffing. The local authorities however have failed to give attention to rural solid waste management. Some communities have contracted private solid waste management companies. These households contribute a monthly fee which is used to pay the companies to collect the waste on a regular basis. In most cases, collection is made three times in a weak. Adequate staff is important to manage rural solid waste effectively. This is because, the waste is bulky and this requires a lot of labor to load this waste (Food waste for fuel in rural Australia?, 2013). Management of common areas the disposal areas also requires staff.
Community mobilization is identified as a major technique of effective rural solid waste management. Rural communities are closely neat and it is easy to bring people together and come up with common goals regarding environmental conservation and precisely solid waste management (Godura, Aggarwal and Bhatia, 2017). Communities are mobilized and educated on the methods they can use to manage solid waste in their households and in their locality in general. The sensitization programs have been found to be very effective in reducing solid waste in rural areas. Communities have also been able to come together and hire people to assist them in management of solid waste in their areas.
Most households in rural areas have dumping sites near their homes where they dump their solid waste materials. Research indicates that most households do not separate waste when they are dumping the solid waste in these dumping sites. Dumping sites should be used to temporarily store solid waste before its collected for dumping to other areas. The dumping sites need to be maintained from time to time to ensure that they do not overflow and become hazardous to the environment (He, 2012). Households need to empty the dumping sites whenever they get full. They can seek the services of garbage collecting authorities to collect non-decomposable solid waste. Dumping sites for organic farm waste becomes compost manure and can be used as manure in the kitchen garden or can be sold to farmers to generate income.
Research methodology
This research will use qualitative research methods to collect and analyze data. The research involves investigating methods that can help to reduce solid waste in rural areas as well as contribute to proper storage of solid waste in rural areas in the district of Altona. The study aims at involving the public to help reduce and manage solid waste in rural areas by educating the public on the need and importance of conserving the environment. The qualitative research method is very suitable for this research since the nature of this subject requires descriptive data. The method is also justifiable for this study since the research mainly involves investigating the solid waste management methods used in urban areas and adjusting them to fit the current and future needs of solid waste management in rural areas. The research will collect primary data using survey method. Data will be collected using structured questionnaires. The population will be composed of community members who are keen on the environment as well as other stakeholders like the local county council, environment management authority nongovernmental organizations involving themselves in environmental conservation efforts (Chandrappa, R., & Das, D. B. (2012 . Simple random sampling technique will be used to select sample population for the study and 55 respondents are needed to conduct this study successfully. The research will use secondary source of information to provide additional information required in this study. The secondary data sources that will be used include books, peer reviewed journals, thesis and dissertations, newspaper articles and internet sources of data. These sources are expected to provide enough information to answer the research questions.
Data analysis methods
Analysis of the data will begin with content analysis where the hypothesis identified at the beginning of the study and comparing the hypothesis with the data collected. The ideas that are closely related are grouped together and those that do not fit the profile are discarded.
The data collected in this study is also analyzed using the historical data on the solid waste management methods that have been used in various places across the world. This data is compared with the waste management methods that have been identified as effective for rural areas Australia (Davis, 2014).  The data will be presented using reports, graphs, tables and pictures where necessary.
Experimental set-up
The study will involve visiting the field to identify the extent of the solid waste problem in the locality so as to understand the real situation and what is exactly needed to solve the problem. Almost every aspect and activity that is undertaken in this research requires collaboration with the locals in the community (Kumar, 2009). The objectives of this study cannot be achieved unless the community is able to understand the reasons why the study is being carried and later support the solid waste management plans when implementation begins. The researcher will hold sections with environmental conservation groups in the regions to help organize the people to be involved in the study. The group will also be used to provide assess to amenities such as the hall where the respondents will meet and be briefed on the purpose of the study before they filled the questionnaire. The researcher will also visit the county council that is concerned with collection of solid waste in urban areas ( Ibrahim, Quaik & Ismail, 2015).  Information on the statistics on solid waste in the rural areas of Altona is collected from the county council.
Expected outcome and relevance
The study expects to come up with a detailed plan on how solid waste can be managed in the rural using with an adjustment of the methods used to manage solid waste in the urban areas. There are different types of solid waste in rural areas. Solid waste materials in rural areas are a bit different from those in urban areas. In the rural areas, solid waste may be composed of plant materials cut from bushes, solid kitchen waste, polythene materials used as food wrappers as well as old household items(United Nations Human Settlements Programme.2010).The plan is expected to come up with means of separating household waste into various waste categories to make it easier for the authorities in charge of managing the waste. Bins will be donated to all households and the households will be encouraged to dig composts where they can dispose off agricultural waste materials which are biodegradable and they can be used later as manure (Anand, 2010). Solid waste will be collected on a daily basis by the local authorities. The local community will be involved in monthly community cleaning to clean the streets and maintain good environment in the rural areas.
Project plan


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The report evaluates the methods that can be used to improve solid waste management in rural areas in Australia. Solid waste in rural areas in Australia has become an issue in the recent past due to a variety of factors. Some of these factors include neglect of rural areas by local authorities and changes in consumerism behavior of households in rural areas. The changes in consumer behavior by households in the rural areas in Australia have contributed to an increase in solid waste that is not organic. Some of the methods that are used to manage solid waste on rural areas include use of bins that are subdivided to help in separation of waste and hence making it easier to dispose off every type of solid waste easily. Communities have also been encouraged to contribute and pay the local authorities or private companies to manage solid waste in their locality. Trucks used for collecting solid waste needs to be specialized for that purpose and to ensure effective management of solid waste. Households in the rural areas are encouraged to use empty dumping sites from time to time to avoid the solid becoming so much and filling the dump sites. Organic solid materials should be dumped separately so that it can be utilized later as manure. Rural households are also encouraged to reuse shopping bags and other materials that can be used more than once.
Anand, S. (2010). Solid Waste Management. New Delhi, Mittal Publications. https://pi.lib.uchicago.edu/1001/cat/bib/8366334
Chang, N.-B., & Pires, A. (2015). Sustainable solid waste management: a systems engineering approach. https://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=1895822.
Chandrappa, R., & Das, D. B. (2012). Solid Waste Management: Principles And Practice. Berlin, Springer. Http://Public.Eblib.Com/Choice/Publicfullrecord.Aspx?p=972326
Davis, G. (2014). Global Resources Recovery, Reuse, Recycling and Conversion: An Overview from Queensland, Australia. The Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management, 39(4), pp.225-233. https://modirio.com
Food waste for fuel in rural Australia?. (2013). ECOS www.ecosmagazine.com/print/EC13083.htm.
Godura, S., Aggarwal, A. and Bhatia, P. (2017). Municipal solid waste management index in urban areas: Delphi validated tool. International Journal of Environment and Waste Management, 20(3), p.215. www.inderscienceonline.com/doi/abs/10.1504/IJEWM.2017.087150
He, P. (2012). Municipal solid waste in rural areas of developing country: Do we need special treatment mode?. Waste Management, 32(7), pp.1289-1290. www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0956053X/32/7
Hiremath, S. S. (2011). Textbook Of Preventive And Community Dentistry. [S.l.], Elsevier India. https://books.google.com/books?isbn=8131225305
Jayasinghe, R., Mushtaq, U., Smythe, T. A., & Baillie, C. (2013). The Garbage Crisis: a Global Challenge For Engineers. Http://Public.Eblib.Com/Choice/Publicfullrecord.Aspx?p=947815.
Khatib, I. and Al-Khateeb, N. (2009). Solid waste treatment opportunities in the Palestinian authority areas. Waste Management, 29(5), pp.1680-1684. https://books.google.com/books?isbn=113946440X
Kumar, S. (2009). Solid Waste Management. New Delhi, Northern Book Centre.
Makarenko, N. and Budak, O. (2017). Waste management in Ukraine: Municipal solid waste landfills and their impact on rural areas. Annals of Agrarian Science, 15(1), pp.80-87. https://books.google.com/books?isbn=113946440X
S, K. K., Ibrahim, M. H., Quaik, S., & Ismail, S. A. (2015). Prospects Of Organic Waste Management And The Significance Of Earthworms. Http://Search.Ebscohost.Com/Login.Aspx?Direct=True&Scope=Site&Db=Nlebk&Db=Nlabk&An=1114426.
United Nations Human Settlements Programme. (2010). Solid Waste Management In The World’s Cities: Water And Sanitation In The World’s Cities 2010. London, Un-Habitat/Earthscan. https://www.worldcat.org/title/solid-waste-management
Wu, D., Zhang, C., Lü, F., Shao, L. and He, P. (2014). The operation of cost-effective on-site process for the bio-treatment of mixed municipal solid waste in rural areas. Waste Management, 34(6), pp.999-1005. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11783-015-0816-8
Zarate, M., Slotnick, J. and Ramos, M. (2008). Capacity building in rural Guatemala by implementing a solid waste management program. Waste Management, 28(12), pp.2542-2551. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/15cc/d0642c83a8469678dc083b992fbe5d758fe3.pdf

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