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Analysis Of A Case Study On Drugs

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Analysis Of A Case Study On Drugs

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Analysis Of A Case Study On Drugs

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Question:
Write an outline for a critical essay providing an analysis of a case study on drugs.
 
 
Answer:

Introduction
Marc Lewis shares his personal life while at the same time availing information relating to neural basis addiction which elaborates how the different kind of drugs interact with the human body and brain. Also, it entails how the human brain changes the way it functions, resulting in drugs and alcohol addiction. In his book, Lewis explains his odyssey where he began as a minor stoner till he became a helpless full-blown addict. This essay addresses on Lewis, an ex-junkie, and neuroscientist who explores the manner which narcotics impact the brain as well as beguile the human mind. Particularly, the focus will be on the impact of drugs and their effects on different cultures.
Drug addiction has several definitions which are currently in use. First, it is considered to be a disease model implying that addiction is something that an individual can get into contact with, and in response, something can be done to cure it (Jupp&Dalley, 2014). Cure can either work on a person or fail to work. The other model that defines addiction is the choice model. The model advocates taking drugs regardless of whether they are bad drugs or not. Choosing drugs that cause extreme damage is a choice. However, this is not the best choice. This choice should favor the immediate gains at the expense of the long-run gains (Gorwood, Le Strat, Ramoz, Dubertret, Moalic&Simonneau, 2012). Immediate gains refer to what extent the choice is going to influence your fun within a short period of let us say four hours compared to its impact on a person’s marriage or even their entire life. The best solution to this is, for example, cognitive behavioral therapy aimed at facilitating a person to make better decisions (Ersche, Jones, Williams, Turton, Robbins &Bullmore, 2012). The third model to explain addiction explains that addiction is a genetic disorder that is triggered by the daily life’s events. The primary idea here is that an individual is considered to have a vulnerability that is exploitable. As a result, certain things happen or a series of events take place resulting in triggering of certain elements in a person, thus they get addicted. Some of the different techniques to treat this addiction is through pharmacological (Bobzean, DeNobrega&Perrotti, 2014). Nonetheless, there are many challenges that are associated with this model.
Lewis gives an explanation on neuroscience desires of making contact with experiences that are considered subjective with the aim of making its fullest contribution. In his book, Lewis shifts from narrative to neuroscience and ends up integrating them into one single seamless account (Brown, Kupchik&Kalivas, 2013). He goes ahead to elaborate on an accessible language that takes place in his brain whenever he consumes drugs. However, he reveals that every drug had its own unique and distinct brain process. According to Lewis, he thinks that drugs are a good means of understanding the brain (McGinty, Goldman, Pescosolido& Barry, 2015). Nonetheless, if this is done, a person is likely to get insights of trying different drugs, thus resulting in addiction. In his first acid trip, Lewis explains what is taking place is serotonin in a modulator such that when LSD is consumed, serotonin is eliminated out of the synapses and out of the spaces that are located between neurons (Best, Beckwith, Haslam, Alexander, Jetten, Mawson&Lubman, 2016). This results in lack of serotonin in the brain. The work of the serotonin is to filter the neural activity, thus making sure that everything that goes to the brain can be managed. Hence, once the serotonin is got rid of, very information that flows into the brain is not manageable. The information itself flows in and out of the brain at an extremely high rate, thus making it uncontrollable. Thus, this results in a wild and highly coherent and permanent experience that results from acid.
 
From Lewis’s narrative, we can see that drugs are a part of a culture. The use of drugs is mostly dependent on the culture whereby different national cultures possess their own distinct ways in which they use intoxicants. Beliefs regarding culture can shape the approach to drug abuse. This is because culture forms the central role of forming individual’s expectations relating to the problems that they may face after they take drugs. For instance, cultural orientation in drug abuse was observed in Native American’s previous generations whereby children were enrolled in boarding schools. These children were separated from their families by miles of distance. They would not see their families for almost a year (McGinty, Goldman, Pescosolido& Barry, 2015). The behavior of these children was shaped mainly through punishments, while physical abuse, as well as mental abuse, were common. The punitive model that is associated with such schools was perpetuated specifically when the children matured and had children of their own. Most of the Native Americans have a common belief that the loss of culture was the main cause of their social challenges which include the association with alcohol since they tried to hide from life’s reality (Lewis, 2012). Among the Asian Americans such as the Japanese Americans have their own specific cultural background with distinct attitudes towards the abuse of drugs. Most of the Asian tend to share the fear of getting addicted or injecting drugs. This is why the Asian-American community disapproves drug abuse very strongly. This culture consumes very little alcohol compared to any other culture. The low drinking rates associated with them may be as a result of an enzyme in their bodies which causes unpleasant side effects when they drink alcohol. However, research indicates that cultural values, as well as the ancient Confucian and Taoist philosophies, have an impact on Japanese and Chinese drinking habits.
Among the Native Americans, their drinking habits seem to be influenced the high-stress levels in this population. Native American young people and adults who reside in urban areas tend to use a lot of alcohol and inhalants which has resulted to both social as well as health problems (Bilinski, Wojtyla, Kapka-Skrzypczak, Chwedorowicz, Cyranks&Studzinski, 2012). The other culture is the Hispanic Americans. Research has indicated that the habits of drug abuse among this culture are dependent on how long the Hispanic Americans live in the United States. Among this culture, there is an increase in crack cocaine smoking due to the adoption of mainstream customs which include speaking more English than Spanish compared to the Hispanic Americans who maintain their original country’s customs (Bellamoli, Manganotti, Schwartz, Rimondo, Gomma&Serpelloni, 2014). Research on Hispanic Americans studying in America indicates that rates all drug use is prevalent at the 8th grade while the use of alcohol is high at youths who are yet to attain 13 years.
Conclusion
The problems brought to communities by drugs as well as alcohol are multidimensional. Excessive substance abuse may result from social changes which occur mostly among the cultural groups as observed with the Hispanic Americans. Thus, it is observable that drugs have an effect on different cultures.
 
References
Bellamoli, E., Manganotti, P., Schwartz, R. P., Rimondo, C., Gomma, M., &Serpelloni, G. (2014). rTMS in the treatment of drug addiction: an update about human studies. Behavioural neurology, 2014.
Best, D., Beckwith, M., Haslam, C., Alexander Haslam, S., Jetten, J., Mawson, E., &Lubman, D. I. (2016). Overcoming alcohol and other drug addiction as a process of social identity transition: the social identity model of recovery (SIMOR). Addiction Research & Theory, 24(2), 111-123.
Bilinski, P., Wojtyla, A., Kapka-Skrzypczak, L., Chwedorowicz, R., Cyranka, M., &Studzinski, T. (2012). Epigenetic regulation in drug addiction. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 19(3).
Bobzean, S. A., DeNobrega, A. K., &Perrotti, L. I. (2014). Sex differences in the neurobiology of drug addiction. Experimental neurology, 259, 64-74.
Brown, R. M., Kupchik, Y. M., &Kalivas, P. W. (2013). The story of glutamate in drug addiction and of N-acetylcysteine as a potential pharmacotherapy. Jama Psychiatry, 70(9), 895-897.
Ersche, K. D., Jones, P. S., Williams, G. B., Turton, A. J., Robbins, T. W., &Bullmore, E. T. (2012). Abnormal brain structure implicated in stimulant drug addiction. Science, 335(6068), 601-604.
Gorwood, P., Le Strat, Y., Ramoz, N., Dubertret, C., Moalic, J. M., &Simonneau, M. (2012). Genetics of dopamine receptors and drug addiction. Human genetics, 131(6), 803-822.
Jupp, B., &Dalley, J. W. (2014). Behavioral endophenotypes of drug addiction: etiological insights from neuroimaging studies. Neuropharmacology, 76, 487-497.
Lewis, M. (2012). Memoirs of an addicted brain: A neuroscientist examines his former life on drugs. Public Affairs.
McGinty, E. E., Goldman, H. H., Pescosolido, B., & Barry, C. L. (2015). Portraying mental illness and drug addiction as treatable health conditions: effects of a randomized experiment on stigma and discrimination. Social Science & Medicine, 126, 73-85.

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