Trouble hearing? Or did you push that cotton swab a little too deep this time? A clogged ear from ear wax buildup is at best annoying and at worst a prelude to hearing loss. So how can you best handle ear wax woes?
“Sometimes, trying to clean them causes more problems than it’s worth,” says ear, nose and throat specialist Anh Nguyen-Huynh, MD. “Ears are like self-cleaning ovens. When the outer layer of skin in the ear canal sheds, the wax will fall out with it.”
But if you’re among those whose ear wax factories are working overtime, Dr. Nguyen-Huynh shares do’s and don’ts for removing wax from your ear.
The deal with ear wax, aka cerumen
If your ears seem waxier than most, take heart: Ear wax, also known as cerumen, is not only normal, it’s necessary.
“People think that ear wax is dirty and needs to be cleaned, but ear wax has both anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties,” notes Dr. Nguyen-Huynh.
“It also protects ears from things that could hurt the eardrum, such as dust, hair or small insects.” (How’s that for a visual?)
But like most things in life, it’s all about balance — too much wax can block your ears and cause temporary hearing loss or infections. “A small number of people will need cleaning if they produce too much wax that jams up the ear, especially if they have a smaller-than-average ear canal,” Dr. Nguyen-Huynh explains.
Other factors that can affect your amount of ear wax include:
- Previous ear surgery or trauma.
- Recurrent ear infections.
- Wearing hearing aids or deep earplugs.
Two ear wax removal methods to try
If ear wax is becoming a nuisance, Dr. Nguyen-Huynh recommends two easy ear cleaning methods:
1. Over-the-counter ear cleaning drops
If you have a small amount of wax, over-the-counter ear cleaners work well. Look for drops that contain hydrogen or other kinds of peroxide. The peroxide does a good job of breaking up ear wax.
Here’s how to use them:
- Lay sideways: Make sure the ear you’re cleaning faces up and add the drops as directed.
- Let it sit: Allow the cleaning solution to sit in your ear for around five minutes. This lets the liquid soak in and soften things up.
- Grab a tissue: When you sit up, the liquid should come out, along with the ear wax that broke loose. Have a tissue ready to catch it all.
If that method doesn’t work, the ears might need flushing with a bulb syringe. But there are a few caveats:
- Be gentle: Flush your ear gently to avoid harming your eardrum.
- Watch the temperature: The water should not be too cold or too warm. If it is, the temperature difference could make you dizzy.
- Avoid if necessary: Don’t use the flushing method if you have a hole in your eardrum or if you’ve ever had eardrum surgery. Flushing may damage your eardrum repair.
If you are not comfortable flushing your own ears, said Dr. Nguyen-Huynh, you might want to check with your primary care provider’s office to see if there is a nurse who would do it for you.
Ear cleaning drops may not work if you have too much ear wax or a condition called impacted cerumen (when there’s a firm wax plug blocking your ear canal).
“When it’s a plug, putting peroxide in your ear may make things worse because you’re softening the plug but not dissolving or removing it,” Dr. Nguyen-Huynh says. “Then the softened plug becomes like a wall of mud that can plug your ear even more.”
2. Mineral or olive oil
Anecdotally, Dr. Nguyen-Huynh says people who put olive oil in their ear before getting a cleaning seem to get wax out more easily. “It lubricates the ear canal,” he explains. “But I’m not sure it’s any better than what we usually recommend, which is mineral oil.”
Two ear wax removal remedies to avoid
All ear wax removal hacks are not created equal. Dr. Nguyen-Huynh recommends steering clear of:
- Cotton swabs: A manufacturer’s warning on the package says it all: Do not insert swab into ear canal. Dr. Nguyen-Huynh explains: “A cotton swab acts like a ramrod in an old-style cannon. The tip pushes the ear wax in deeper, so the more you use it, the more ear wax you push in. Plus, you may rupture your eardrum if you push too far. Or if you scratch your ear canal, it can get infected because now dirt and bacteria can penetrate under your skin.”
- Ear wax removal candles: Dr. Nguyen-Huynh says you should doubly stay away from this method: These candles don’t work, AND they may burn you.
When to see a doctor about a clogged ear
While ear wax is generally more annoying than dangerous, sometimes you need a doctor to clear it. If home remedies don’t work, your ear hurts or you have trouble hearing, Dr. Nguyen-Huynh says it’s smart to seek medical evaluation.
“Someone needs to look in and see if the ear canal is open or if the wax is plugging it up,” he says.
If the situation is minor, you may be able to get your ears unblocked right then and there. If not, ENT doctors can use operating microscopes to magnify inside the ear canal, loosen the wax and vacuum it out.
And a clogged ear may have other causes. “It could be a middle ear infection with fluid filling up the space behind the eardrum,” Dr. Nguyen-Huynh cautions. “Or you could have a viral infection that affects the inner ear. In those cases, a doctor can diagnose and treat you to prevent permanent hearing loss.”